Raventós et al. (1998): A barley gene encoding a novel DNA-binding protein (HRT) was identified by southwestern screening with baits containing a gibberellin phytohormone response element from an alpha-amylase promoter. The HRT gene contains two introns, the larger of which (5722 base pairs (bp)) contains a 3094-bp LINE-like element with homology to maize Colonist1. In vitro mutagenesis and zinc- and DNA-binding assays demonstrate that HRT contains three unusual zinc fingers with a CX8-9CX10CX2H consensus sequence. HRT is targeted to nuclei, and homologues are expressed in other plants. In vivo, functional tests in plant cells indicate that full-length HRT can repress expression from certain promoters including the Amy1/6-4 and Amy2/32 alpha-amylase promoters. In contrast, truncated forms of HRT containing DNA-binding domains can activate, or derepress, transcription from these promoters. Northern hybridizations indicate that HRT mRNA accumulates to low levels in various tissues. Roles for HRT in mediating developmental and phytohormone-responsive gene expression are discussed.


Raventós, D; Skriver, K; Schlein, M; Karnahl, K; Rogers, SW; Rogers, JC; Mundy, J. 1998. HRT, a novel zinc finger, transcriptional repressor from barley. J. Biol. Chem. 273(36):23313-20 PubMed


Name: HRT
Class: TF
Number of species containing the TAP: 96
Number of available proteins: 158

The colour code corresponds to the rules for the domains:

should be contained
should not be contained

Domain rules:

(Domain names are clickable)

Phylogenetic tree for Archeaplastida:

No tree was calculated yet.

TAP distribution:

The following table shows the distribution of HRT over all species included in TAPscan. The values for e.g. a specific kingdom are shown in the tree below if you expand the tree for that kingdom.

Minimum Maximum Average Median Standard deviation

List of species containing HRT sorted by kingdomcladesupergrouporderfamily:

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expand kingdom Archaeplastida (171 proteins in 96 species)
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A list of species letter codes included in the protein names can be found here (opens in new tab).