Fridborg et al. (2001): The current model of gibberellin (GA) signal transduction is based on a derepressible system and a number of candidate negative regulators have been identified in Arabidopsis. We previously have reported the identification of the Arabidopsis gene SHORT INTERNODES (SHI) that causes suppression of GA responses when constitutively activated. In this paper, we show by using reporter gene analysis that the SHI gene is expressed in young organs, e.g. shoot apices and root tips. The model predicts a suppressor of GA responses to be active in these tissues to prevent premature growth or development. To study the effect of SHI on GA signaling, we used a functional assay that measures effects of signaling components on a well-defined GA response; the up-regulation of alpha-amylase in barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurones in response to GA treatment. We found that SHI was able to specifically block the activity of a high-isoelectric point alpha-amylase promoter following GA(3) treatment, which further supports that SHI is a suppressor of GA responses. We have identified two putative loss-of-function insertion alleles of SHI and lines homozygous for either of the new alleles show no phenotypic deviations from wild type. Because SHI belongs to a gene family consisting of nine members, we suggest that SHI and the SHI-related genes are functionally redundant. We also show that a functional ERECTA allele is able to partly suppress the dwarfing effect of the shi gain-of-function mutation, suggesting that the erecta mutation harbored by the Landsberg erecta ecotype is an enhancer of the shi dwarf phenotype.


Fridborg, I; Kuusk, S; Robertson, M; Sundberg, E. 2001. The Arabidopsis protein SHI represses gibberellin responses in Arabidopsis and barley. Plant Physiol. 127(3):937-48 PubMed


Name: SRS
Class: TF
Number of species containing the TAP: 102
Number of available proteins: 650

The colour code corresponds to the rules for the domains:

should be contained
should not be contained

Domain rules:

(Domain names are clickable)

Phylogenetic tree for Archeaplastida:

No tree was calculated yet.

TAP distribution:

The following table shows the distribution of SRS over all species included in TAPscan. The values for e.g. a specific kingdom are shown in the tree below if you expand the tree for that kingdom.

Minimum Maximum Average Median Standard deviation

List of species containing SRS sorted by kingdomcladesupergrouporderfamily:

hide all | show all

expand kingdom Archaeplastida (696 proteins in 102 species)
select all | unselect | select genome only

A list of species letter codes included in the protein names can be found here (opens in new tab).